Although low blood pressure may generally represent a protective factor against the risk of developing cardiovascular events, in certain cases this may results in significant symptoms.
A large number of conditions, ranging from surgical or medical diseases to environmental or pharmacological causes, can lead to a transient or persistent lowering of blood pressure below normal values.
In fact, various forms of hypotension can be recognized based on the underlying causes and pathophysiological mechanisms, including:
- idiopathic hypotension
- orthostatic hypotension
- post-operative hypotension
- post-infectious hypotension
- post-partum hypotension
- climate-based hypotension
- hypotension secondary to psychotropic drugs
- astheno-hypotensive syndrome.
Contributing factors are: age, drugs (diuretics, antihypertensive agents), endocrine (hypothyroidism, Addison's disease) and neurological (Parkinson's disease) disorders, dehydration, long periods of bed rest.
Depending on the extent of blood pressure reduction, the speed with which it occurs, and its persistence over time, symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, lack of strength, blurred vision, nausea, and, eventually, transient loss of consciousness due to reduced cerebral perfusion, may occur.
As a general rule, the forms of hypotension that do not cause symptoms or those characterized by transient mild symptoms do not require treatment.
In any case, before starting any treatment, it is crucial to identify the underlying cause and correct any predisposing conditions.
Useful preventive measures include: taking adequate amounts of water, reducing alcohol consumption, and reducing the doses of some medications such as diuretics and antihypertensive agents.